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The concentration of calcium and magnesium salts in water. Hardness is a term originally referred to the soap-consuming power of water; as such it is sometimes also taken to include iron and manganese. “Permanent hardness” is the excess of hardness over alkalinity. “Temporary hardness” is equal or less than the alkalinity. These also are referred to as “non-carbonated” or “carbonate” hardness, respectively.
Publication Source: ISPE Baseline® Guide, Vol. 4: Water and Steam Systems (Second Edition)
Publication Date: 2011
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