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1. In molecular biology, the stretch of DNA base pairs that lie in the 5’ direction from the site of initiation of transcription. Usually the first transcribed base is designated +1 and the upstream nucleotides are marked with minus signs, e.g., -1, -10. Also, to the 5’ side of a particular gene or sequence of nucleotides.
2. In chemical engineering, those phases of a manufacturing process that precede the biotransformation step. Refers to the preparation of raw materials for a fermentation process. Also called upstream processing.
Publication Source: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Publication Date: 1999
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