ISPE Glossary of Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Terminology

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Upstream

1. In molecular biology, the stretch of DNA base pairs that lie in the 5’ direction from the site of initiation of transcription. Usually the first transcribed base is designated +1 and the upstream nucleotides are marked with minus signs, e.g., -1, -10. Also, to the 5’ side of a particular gene or sequence of nucleotides.

2. In chemical engineering, those phases of a manufacturing process that precede the biotransformation step. Refers to the preparation of raw materials for a fermentation process. Also called upstream processing.

Publication Source: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Publication Date: 1999

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