This presentation will explore realistic approaches to vial capping in controlled environments including the integration of capping into the process facility and the importance of equipment design and machine set up to insure Container Closure Integrity (CCI). The discussion will include examples of how different users address important design requirements for capping in controlled environments including materials of construction, in-process inspection, barrier options (RABS & Isolators), and facility programming (including equipment integration, layout, and area classification). In addition to engineering requirements and capping environment we will discuss the factors that affect the CCI. These factors include sealing method, component interaction, and machine set up tools. The combination of these factors contribute to the ultimate goal of protecting the patient and producing the highest quality products using the best available technology. As a result of the presentation, delegates will understand the requirements of the various regulatory guidelines for vial capping.